你了解澳大利亚移民历史吗?

澳大利亚作为一个移民国家,有着长久的移民历史。那么澳洲的移民历史和政策经历了怎样的演变呢?今天就带大家了解一下澳大利亚的移民简史。

1788年1月26日,英国的第一支罪犯遣送船队在悉尼的Cove登陆,目的是为了在当地建立一个监狱,在此之前,澳洲的土地上已经有了原住民。目前已经将这一天定为澳大利亚的国庆节,但是却被原住民称为“灾难日”或“侵略日”。同年的2月7日,这里被正式宣布为新南威尔斯殖民地。

在这之后,越来越多的欧洲移民陆续来到澳洲,他们主要是来自于英格兰、爱尔兰、苏格兰的农民和家仆。但是从欧洲到澳大利亚的航行费用要远远高于美洲,很难吸引民众迁徙到这里。直到1840年,爱德华·吉本·维克菲尔德(Wakefield, Edward Gibbon)想了一个办法,就是维持土地的高价格,并为新移民提供津贴。该做法一直持续到新的自治政府成立以前,直到后来选民拒绝用罚款的税来为有就业竞争力的人提供工作机会。

1954年,50,000名荷兰移民进入澳洲
1954年,50,000名荷兰移民进入澳洲。(图片来源:公有领域)

澳洲中部地区发现了大量金矿引发了淘金热。淘金时代开始于1851年,吸引了更多的移民前往澳洲,其中包括很大数量的不列颠和爱尔兰移民,还有小数量的德国人、其他欧洲人口和中国人。据不完全统计,截止到1901年,中国人是继英国、德国之后的第三大移民群体。

澳大利亚联邦政府在1901年成立,其最初的改革就包括《1901年移民限制法案》(Immigration Restriction Act 1901),用听写测试的控制机制来控制移民进入澳洲。移民要进入澳大利亚必须通过任何一种欧洲语言(不需要一定是英语)长达50字的听写测试,文章的语言则由移民官员酌情决定。据统计,直至1909年,总计有1359名参加测试,其中只有52名申请人通过了。

1909年,精通5门语言的东欧记者埃贡·欧文·基施(Egon Erwin Kisch),在苏格兰的语言测试中被认为没有正常阅读和写作能力。而在1909年之后,就再也没有申请人通过这项语言测试了。

随着第二次世界大战的结束,大量的战争难民涌入澳大利亚。《1901年移民限制法案》遭到社会各界的质疑,直到1972年澳大利亚政府才正式废除了这项法案。在随后的1975年,《反种族歧视法案》(Racial Discrimination Act 1975)正式颁布。在此前所出台的联邦与州法律中,与《反种族歧视法》有冲突的条款一律无效,该法案还明确列出了在工作、生活等各方面中,涉及种族歧视的具体定义与表象。

越南战争接近尾声之际,大批越南船民抵达澳大利亚。1990年代中期,大批中国学生来到澳大利亚留学,其中大约有四分之一的人留下来。1990年代末开始,一批投资商业移民也相继来到澳大利亚。

时至今日,澳大利亚已经成为世界上最热门的移民国家之一,其优秀的社会保障体系、教育资源,以及美丽的自然风光,吸引着数以万计的新移民,而这一群体中则包含了来自不同地区、不同文化背景的各类人,澳大利亚也因此成为了多元文化的国家。

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