既恨又愛 北京如何利用外國領導人訪問開動宣傳機器?

中國官方媒體撰寫了數十篇有關美國眾議院議長南希·佩洛西(Nancy Pelosi)的文章,稱這位30年來一直批評北京的美國政治人士自私任性,她的台灣之行註定被掃進歷史的垃圾堆。

中國官媒對佩洛西8月初訪台的報道,突顯了這些官方媒體如何反映北京在各個問題上的世界觀,從爭議地區的獨立問題到侵犯人權問題。

熟諳中國媒體的學者說,從中國共產黨領導人的國內視察,到國際領導人的訪問,每一個官方訪問都給北京帶來不同程度的不確定性和宣傳價值。

不過艾奧瓦州立大學研究中國新聞媒體的教授何尚恩(Jonathan Hassid)說,那些受到外國媒體和政府關注的訪問,很可能會被北京視為一個影響核心議題敘事的機會。

他對美國之音說:「它們可以是非常強大的宣傳載體。」

何尚恩和其他專家表示,官方媒體的報道能夠力求對中共和習近平進行讚美與合法化,同時反駁外國媒體更具批判性的報道。

一位在美國研究中國宣傳的教授說,外國領導人的訪問——比如佩洛西的台灣行——對北京來說有很大的不確定性。

但是她說,這些訪問同時也提供了相對較高的宣傳價值,因為有了額外的關注,「這些訪問的宣傳價值實際上比嚴格精心安排的新疆和香港之行要高很多。」

這位在美國東海岸的學者由於擔心自身和中國家人的安全,要求匿名。

在中國一家官方媒體工作的人士說,對於中共官員的一些國內視察,北京允許自家媒體的有限報道,但即便如此,這也是「精心安排和高度控制的。」

這位人在中國的編輯出於安全擔憂要求匿名。

她在寫給美國之音的短信中說:「在這些例子中,你只能報道政府立場。這特別重要,因為這影響着政府在國際舞台上的聲譽。」

中國駐美大使館沒有回覆美國之音的電子郵件置評請求。

字裡行間

中國共產黨第二十次全國代表大會將在未來幾個月召開,屆時預計習近平將會獲得第三個任期。

那位匿名的教授說,習近平今年6月的新疆和香港之行的目的是向中國的政治精英發出訊息。

她對美國之音說:「做這些視察是宣示他權力的一種方式——像是慶祝勝利,顯示他作為國家領導人在那些地區的領導是多麼有成效。」

那位在中國官媒工作的編輯也這樣認為。她對美國之音說:「(我的機構)想要在報道中展現習近平卓越偉大的形象,官媒只允許報道官方立場,肯定就是這樣報道的。」

習近平的新疆視察與聯合國人權高專米歇爾·巴切萊特(Michelle Bachelet)的新疆之行,不僅顯示出中國官方媒體如何試圖推動新疆歲月靜好的某種敘事,還顯示出北京如何嚴格控制外國記者的准入。

外國記者是從中國媒體的報道中才得知習近平八年後的首次新疆之行。中國媒體的報道專注習近平行程的微小細節。

這些官媒沒有報道任何對中國新疆政策以及對大規模監禁維吾爾人的批評。一些政府和公民社會組織說,中國在新疆(也被稱為東突厥斯坦)的所作所為可能構成種族滅絕。

《紐約時報》中國事務首席記者儲百亮(Chris Buckley)在一個採訪中對美國之音說,那些視察也許禁止西方記者採訪,但是官媒的報道仍然是有用的,只要你知道怎麼讀懂隱字裡行間透出來的意思。

人在澳大利亞悉尼的儲百亮說:「我們作為外國記者的角色就是閱讀這些視察的官方總結,讀懂他們在政策上釋放了什麼信號。」

儲百亮說:「這些行程解釋得非常謹慎、克制,甚至人為造作,像是政治戲劇。它們在中國媒體中所呈現的方式旨在釋放有關政策方向的信號和訊息。」

中國官媒和西方媒體的不同報道方式在巴切萊特結束中國之行的記者會上展現無疑。巴切萊特5月間的中國之行是聯合國人權高專自2005年來首次訪華。

巴切萊特此行沒有記者隨行,聯合國人權高專辦公室說這能讓人權高專和她見到的人進行坦誠布公的交談。但是一位發言人說,巴切萊特試圖以召開記者會作為彌補,就如她在中國所做的。

《衛報》(The Guardian)和美國有線電視新聞網(CNN)的記者詢問了巴切萊特有關她在新疆的准入問題以及備受期待的有關新疆人權侵害的報告。《人民日報》等中國官媒的代表則讓巴切萊特比較「真實的新疆」與西方媒體的描述,或者問她有關美國槍支暴力的問題。

上述那位接受美國之音採訪的中國官媒雇員說,官媒機構「報道官方敘事,就是美國總是在抹黑中國,總是想找茬來打壓中國。」

英國利茲大學教授金斯利·埃德尼(Kingsley Edney)對美國之音說,北京越來越強調向世界其他地方「講好中國故事」的重要性,像巴切萊特那樣的訪問有助於這種行動。

何尚恩持類似看法,但是他表示,那些訪問根植於歷史象徵主義。

他告訴美國之音:「不難看到,她的訪問給了中國政府想要的,蓋上大印,認可新疆沒問題。中國政府的黃金標準是,讓外國人出面來誇讚他們。」

何尚恩說,這些官方訪問在中國具有特別的歷史和文化意涵,帝王曾利用這些巡視來行使權威。

他說,即使在今天,官方媒體的報道也在展示「所有這一切的象徵意義」。

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