批驳历史研究院“闭国锁国有利论”

近日,一篇名为《中国历史研究院课题组:明清时期“闭关锁国”问题新探》的文章在网上热传。文章的结论是,传统“闭关锁国导致中国近代落后”的观点是过时的、站不住脚的,是“特定时代欧洲中心主义影响下的文化产物”。

恰恰相反,该政策起到过反侵略、反殖民、反海外敌对势力干涉、反文化渗透的积极作用。

文章原文称,“我们认为明清两朝中央政府采取的是“自主限关”的对外政策。站在今天的角度看,是否开放、如何开放、开放范围多大,属于国家主权范围。国内外一些学者简单地斥其为“落后”、责其为“野蛮”,甚至认为违反所谓“国际法”,是完全站不住脚的。”

查了下这篇文章刊登于今年6月底,当时并未翻起多大浪花,但8月24日,历史研究院将全文发到了网上,一石激起千层浪。考虑到当下的局势,这篇文章的用意是不言自明的,通过美化、赞扬、合理化“闭关锁国”政策,打造理论和历史经纬支撑。

不过,将写进历史教科书多年的“闭关锁国论”翻案,美化成正面的“自主限关”,势必需要坚实有力的史实支撑。但将此文通篇读完,基本没有发现任何新颖、有说服力的史料,大量充斥的是“某历史学家认为”“某学者指出”这样的“论据”。

逻辑学上有一个常见的谬误是“诉诸权威”或者“诉诸专家”,即以某个专家的言论去判断事物,而不是依据事实本身。全文拉出了不少学者专家为观点背书,但遗憾的是,无论是逻辑还是事实,都无法佐证文章的论点。

除了“诉诸专家”外,此文常见的一种手段是将已有史实进行扭曲、利用,或者“争夺词语解释权”,比如称中国原本并无“闭关锁国”一词,该词是一个外来嫁接词,本身就含有人为和主观色彩,是西方的“中伤”,是特定时代“西方中心主义”影响的产物。

将不好的解释为好的,或者将不好的解释为“被误解”“被施加”的。可谓谁掌握了历史,谁就掌握了现在。

这里简举几例进行批驳:

引言中称,“学术界占据主流的一种观点是,明清两朝中央政府采取“闭关锁国”政策,即被迫实施全面关闭国门的政策”。

首先,学术界主流观点是闭关是满清统治者主动采取的政策,而非“被迫”。其次,“被迫”论从何而来?西方国家恰恰想要的是开口岸通商,一个毫无来由的“被迫”,却表现闭关是出于无奈的为国之举。

第一段称,“王宏斌通过细致考证,提出乾隆皇帝“从未下令关闭江、浙、闽三海关”。第四段进一步称,“事实上,限定广州一口通商,并未禁止西方各国商人到其他三口通商”。那么,“细致考证”了什么,“事实”是什么,一字未提。

1757年,乾隆明确下诏,“令行文该国番商,遍谕番商,嗣后口岸定于广东,不得再赴浙省”,即便对广州口岸,清廷也设立了严格苛刻的管制条令。

《防范夷商规条》等条例规定,洋商只能住在划定的十三行区,由清兵严密把守,不得自由出入,且冬天需搬离,洋人不得随意和中国人交流,不得携带家眷,不得学习汉语,不得踢球,洋商还需要向各级官员送礼行贿,才被允许上岸。

对这些限制措施,此文解释为,“在经济上限制对外贸易区域,以便有效管辖”,“为了防范外国商船及商人的不法行为”,干脆别让外国人来了多好。

第四段称,“明代的海禁政策针对的是本国人民,目的是切断敌对势力从大陆获得后勤补给和情报,并不是针对海外各国,更不是有意识地闭关锁国”,这样就自相矛盾了,既然海禁目的是为了保护百姓不受侵扰,那为什么还要像防贼一样防范本国人民?

该文称,“‘限关’是自主行为,其动机是维护国土安全、文化安全,是面对外部袭扰,特别是面对西方殖民侵略威胁时,采取的防御性自我保护策略。”但无论是“闭关”还是“限关”,其目的究竟是维护国家安全,还是维护爱新觉罗一家的统治,稍有常识的人都能分辨出来。

实际上,清廷“防汉甚于防夷”,清廷千方百计阻止国人与西方交流,就是害怕西方的思想、宗教、科技文化传到国内,会开拓国人的眼界,产生自由思想,滋生反抗情绪。

鸦片战争爆发时,清廷虽然有80万常备军,为世界规模之最,而英军连同海军不过2万人。但清朝的军队,大部分用来防范、监视、威慑本国百姓,使得清廷根本不敢抽调大量兵力迎战英军。

兵力不足的清廷只能临时招募乡勇作战,但临时拼凑的乡勇如何和装备先进的英军作战?更讽刺的是,对这些乡勇,道光皇帝更为恐慌,今天你用武器赶跑了英国侵略者,明天你就有可能用武器赶跑作威作福的满人统治者,因此,只要英军退去,道光第一道命令就是裁撤乡勇。

“国不知有民,乃民不知有国”,清朝闭关锁国,维护的只是爱新觉罗和满人权贵的利益。这种结果就是老百姓根本不愿意维护清廷,一个听上去颇为荒诞的真实例子是,英军进犯江浙时,有地方乡绅组织武装自卫队,目的却并不是反抗英军,而是防范清军路过时抢劫。

清廷非但给不了他们安全、权利和尊严,反而带来的是无穷的盘剥和压榨。这样的清廷,失败是怎么闭关锁国都避免不了的。

(全文转自微信公众号我就是郁风

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