科学家发现“超级地球”

科学家发现两颗“超级地球”行星,它们围绕距地球100光年外的一颗恒星运行,其中一颗可能拥有孕育生命的必要条件。

这颗名为LP 890-9的恒星,承载著两颗系外行星,名为LP 890-9b和LP 890-9c,其中前者首先被美国宇航局(NASA)的凌日系外行星勘测卫星(TESS)发现。

科学家使用SPECULOOS(寻找超越超冷恒星的可居住行星)望远镜,其中一个在伯明翰大学运行,然后确定了另一颗行星。

LP 890-9b比地球大30%,仅用2.7天就完成了围绕恒星的轨道。然而,LP 890-9c比地球大40%,有一个约8.5天的较长的轨道周期——使它处于围绕其恒星的“宜居区”。

SPECULOOS的目标是寻找太阳系外、具有维持生命条件的类地行星。

Amaury Triaud教授,带领SPECULOOS工作组发现了第二颗行星。他说:“宜居区的概念是,类似地球的地质和大气条件的行星,其表面温度允许水在数十亿年内保持液体状态。这促使我们进行更多的观察,找出这颗行星是否有大气层,如果有的话,研究是否适合生命生存。”

这颗恒星也被称为TOI-4306或SPECULOOS-2,是继TRAPPIST-1之后发现的,承载行星的第二颗温度最低的恒星,它承载了七颗地球大小的凌日行星。

LP 890-9b是该系统的内行星,在TESS搜索围绕附近恒星运行的系外行星时,被确定为可能的候选行星。接下来,它被SPECULOOS望远镜确认。

研究人员随后利用这些望远镜,在该系统中寻找更多会被TESS错过的凌日行星。

TESS对近红外光的敏感度有限,而近红外光是由LP 890-9这样非常冷的恒星发出的,这使得后续工作特别重要。

比利时列日大学的研究员Laetitia Delrez说:“TESS使用凌日法搜索系外行星,同时监测数千颗恒星的亮度,寻找可能由行星在其恒星前经过而造成的轻微变暗。然而,地面望远镜的后续工作是必要的,以确认探测到的候选行星的性质,并完善其尺寸和轨道特性的测量。”

SPECULOOS项目的望远镜,安装在欧洲南方天文台(ESO),位于智利的帕拉纳尔天文台和特内里费岛上。

他们的相机,对较冷恒星发出的光非常敏感,因此可以高精度观测它们。

SPECULOOS项目的主要研究人员Michaël Gillon说:“SPECULOOS的目标是寻找类似地球的宜居行星,这些行星环绕著太阳系附近的一些最小和最冷的恒星,例如我们在2016年发现的TRAPPIST-1行星系统。这类行星特别适合对其大气层进行详细的研究,也适合用大型观测站,如詹姆斯-韦伯太空望远镜(JWST)来寻找可能的生命化学踪迹。”

LP 890-9c是SPECULOOS望远镜在观测其恒星时,发现的第二颗系外行星,因此研究人员将其重新命名为SPECULOOS-2c。

夏威夷的MuSCAT3天文成像仪确认,它的轨道周期是8.5天,位于其恒星周围的“宜居带”。这意味著它对于外星生命来说,既不会太热也不会太冷,但是在确认它适合居住之前,研究人员还得通过JWST研究它的大气层。

LP 890-9c可能是JWST研究宜居行星的第二个最有利的目标,仅次于TRAPPIST-1行星。

Triaud教授补充说:“探测尽可能多的宜居类地行星,以研究系外行星气候的多样性,并最终能够评估宇宙中生物出现的频率,这一点很重要。”

甚么是“超级地球”?

超级地球是一类太阳系外行星,其质量比地球大,但比海王星和天王星等冰巨星要轻。

它们由气体、岩石或两者的组合构成,在我们的银河系中普遍存在。它们的大小是地球的两倍,质量是地球的10倍。它们不一定具有与地球相似的成分,可能被水或冰覆盖,或者由密集的气体构成。

(原文链接: Two ‘super-Earth’ planets are found orbiting a small star 100 light-years away – and scientists believe one of them could host alien life

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